COMMON AILMENTS HOME REMEDIES HERBAL REMEDIES HERBAL MEDICINES ARTICLES
WELCOME TO HOME-REMEDIES.INFO

Acidophilus
Almond
Aloe
Ajowan
Arjun
Aniseed
Ashoka
Ash Gaurd
Asafoetida
Ash
Angelica
Androstenedione
Butcher Broom
Bael
Babool
Bamboo
Banana
Banyan
Betel
Betel Nuts
Bitter Gourd
Black Pepper
Black Plum
Camphor
Carrot
Curd
Black Root
Burdock
Benzoin
Cardamom
Chondroitin
Cinnamon
Chaulmoogra Oil
Dock Yellow
Dill
Eucalyptus
Eyebright
Ephedra
Elderberry
Euphorbiaceae
Fenugreek
Fig
Garlic
Gingelly
Ginger
Gooseberry
Grapes
Henna
Hogweed
Holy Basil
Honey


 

Fennel - Some Benefits on Usage of Fennel

Common Trade Names

Bitter Fennel, Fennel Herb Tea, Sweet Fennel

Common Forms

Capsules: 455 mg

Volatile oil in water: 2% (Sweet Fennel), 4% (Bitter Fennel)

Also available as essential oil, seeds, teas, and tinctures.

Source

Fennel oil is usually obtained from the seeds of Foeniculum vulgare. The plant is native to Europe and now also found in parts of Asia and Egypt. The root of this plant is also considered useful.

Chemical Components of Fennel

The seeds of F. vulgare contain 2% to 6% volatile oil, 20% fixed oil (composed of petroselinic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid), and high concentrations of tocopherols. Other components of the seeds include flavonoids, umbelliferone, kaempferols, stigmasterol, proteins, sugars, vitamins, and minerals. The herb has a high potassium and calcium content. The volatile oil consists of anethol, fenchone, estragole, limonene, camphene, and alpha-pinene. Other components of the herb include monoterpene hydrocarbons, sabinene, alpha-phellandrene, myrcene, terpinenes, terpinolene, fenchyl alcohol, anisaldehyde, and myristicin apiole.

Actions

Fennel and its volatile oil are reported to have antiflatulent and stimulant properties. Fennel oil with methylparaben has been shown to inhibit the growth of Salmonella enteriditis and, to a lesser extent, Listeria monocytogenes . The oil inhibited the twitch response in smooth muscle and tracheal and ileal muscles in guinea pigs . Aqueous fennel extracts increase ciliary function of frog epithelium. An acetone extract of fennel seeds produced an estrogenic effect on the genital organs of male and female rats.

Anethole has been found to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-induced cellular responses , and it is theorized that this action may suppress both inflammation and carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of this finding.

Reported Uses

Despite fennel's claims to increase milk secretion, promote menses, facilitate birth, and increase libido, human data are lacking. Fennel has also been used historically to treat colic, indigestion, and irritable bowel syndrome.

Dosage

Traditional uses suggest the following doses:

For GI complaints, 0.1 to 0.6 ml P.O. daily of the oil, or 5 to 7 g daily of the fruit.

Tea: 2 to 3 g of fennel seeds steeped in 8 oz of water.

Tincture: 2 to 4 ml P.O. t.i.d.

Adverse Reactions

CNS: seizures.

GI: nausea, vomiting.

Respiratory: pulmonary edema (rare).

Skin: contact dermatitis, photodermatitis.

Other: tumors (an essential oil component, estragole, has caused tumors in animals).

Interactions

Ciprofloxacin: Fennel significantly decreased the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin when administered concurrently in rats; further studies are needed to determine the extent of this effect in humans. Maintain adequate dosing interval.

Contraindications And Precautions

The use of fennel is not recommended in patients with estrogen-dependent cancers because anethole and other terpenoids found in fennel are believed to possess estrogen-like activity .

Also avoid its use in pregnant patients. Use cautiously in patients who are hypersensitive to other members of the Apiaceae family, such as celery, carrots, and mugwort.

Special Considerations

Inform the patient that this herb cannot be recommended for any use because of insufficient evidence.

Inform the patient that the long-term risks of fennel use are unknown.

Advise the patient to avoid sun exposure if photo dermatitis occurs.

Advise the pregnant or breast-feeding patient to avoid using fennel.

Alert The fennel plant may be mistaken for poison hemlock, which contains the strong narcotic coniine. Ingestion of a small amount of hemlock causes vomiting, paralysis, and death. Inform the patient who may attempt to harvest this plant in the wild to avoid mistakenly retrieving poison hemlock.

Points of Interest

Fennel is used as a flavoring in liquors, baked goods, meat products, snacks, and gravies, and as a food. The highest concentration of fennel oil in foods cannot exceed 0.119%. In soaps, lotions, and perfumes, the maximum is 0.4%.

Commentary

Because of a lack of clinical data, fennel cannot be recommended as treatment for any condition, although possibilities exist for further study.

   

Web Home-Remedies.Info
Bistort
Blue Flag
Fennel
Flax
Galangal
Glucosamine
Gossypol
Indigo
Irish Moss
Jojoba
Khat
Khella
Lady's Mantle
Lovage
Red Poppy
Rose Hips
Rosemary
Saffron
Spirulina
Stone Root
Sweet Violet
Thyme
True Unicorn Root
Wild Ginger
Wild Yam
Witch Hazel

HOME REMEDIES | CONTACT US | HERBAL BLOG

Disclaimer: This website is not intended to provide any professional medical advice and is for educational purposes only. The publisher of this site is not liable for any misconception or misuse of the information provided leading to bad results. Never use any home remedy or other self treatment without being advised to do so by a physician.
This website and the information contained herein, has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration.